R-7 missile was developed as part of N-3 cross-sectoral «research on prospects for long-range missiles development to identify their main structural and tactical flight performance» (1951) by the design and development units, scientific and research units and trial production of NII-88 under the guidance of Chief Designer S.P.Korolev in cooperation with design bureaus, research institutes and industrial enterprises of a number of ministries and authorities.
The first successful launch took place on 21 August, 1957. The missile entered operational service in 1960.
Launch vehicles for earth-orbiting satellites, manned spacecraft, unmanned interplanetary stations exploring the Moon, Venus and Mars were developed on the basis of R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile. These launch vehicles became the most reliable ones in the national history having put more than 3000 satellites into orbit.
R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile
«Soyuz» launch vehicle model identical in design on test bench 1