Central Research Institute
for Machine Building


GLONASS Background

In 1957, scientific research and development of satellite navigation started.

In 1967, the first national navigation satellite, Kosmos-192, was put into orbit. This set the stage for deployment of indigenous LEO system – Tsikada.

In 1979, Tsikada system, comprised of 4 satellites, was commissioned.

In October 1982, the Kosmos-1413 satellite launch set forth flight tests of HEO indigenous navigation system named GLONASS.

GLONASS system was put in trial operation in 1993.

In 1995 a complete orbital constellation was deployed (24 spacecraft of the 1st Gen Glonass), and the system started its nominal operation.

In the mid-1990s, it became possible for civilian users to use GLONASS space navigation system. The coordinate and time support issue was to be discussed by a range of such leading enterprises, as Research Institute of Space Instrument Building (RNIIKP), Scientific Production Association for Applied Mechanics (ISS-Reshetnev Company), Energia Scientific and Production Association, etc.

In 1995, FGUP TsNIImash established PNT Information Analysis Center on the basis of its information, engineering and scientific base.